Technology consists of all things, material or immaterial, that people use to solve problems in the world. These include tools and machines; software; and business methods that enable people to do their work more effectively and efficiently.
Advantages of Technology:
Technological innovations have greatly influenced the course of history and human society. They have boosted economic prosperity, improved human comfort and quality of life, and made medical progress possible.
But they can also have negative effects on health, environment, and social well-being. These effects may be small and isolated, such as a tiny leak in a refrigerator’s cooling system, or large and complex, such as pollution from a nuclear power plant.
Constraints on Technology:
Every engineering design is subject to many constraints, including the availability of materials, energy, tools, and knowledge; government regulations; public opposition; social values; and ecological considerations such as the impact on future generations. An optimum design takes into account all these constraints and finds a reasonable compromise between them.
In the United States, for example, a range of incentives and regulations encourage some technological systems while discouraging others. These include the federal budget process, consumer acceptance, patent laws, tax incentives, media attention, economic competition, and scientific discoveries.
Technology is a powerful force that has the potential to be used for good or bad. In fact, there are many philosophical and political debates about the role of technology in society, as well as the ethics and consequences of its uses.